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Serology

Tests

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Test Abbreviations

  • EIA - Enzyme Immunoassay
  • IFA - Indirect Immunoflourescent Antibody
  • RPR - Rapid Plasma Reagin
  • TP-PA - Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination

Tests

For all IgM assays, IgM antibody may be absent if the specimen was collected too early in the course of infection. If this is suspected, a convalescent specimen should be collected 7-14 days after the acute and submitted for testing.

MMR Serology

Testing is available for IgM antibodies to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella.

  • Measles EIA
    • Detects IgM antibodies
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 3 days
  • Mumps EIA
    • Detects IgM antibodies
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 3 days
  • Rubella EIA
    • Detects IgM antibodies
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 3 days

Rickettsial Serology

Testing for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Murine Typhus, or Q Fever will only be performed on paired sera. Single serum specimens may be tested but will require approval by the Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Epidemiology. Serum samples that cannot be tested or shipped to the Arizona State Laboratory within 2-5 days of collection must be stored at <20°C.

  • Rickettsial IgG IFA
    • Detects IgG antibodies for the following:
      • Spotted Fever Group (R. rickettsii)
      • Murine Typhus Group (R. typhi)
      • Q Fever (Phase I and Phase II)
    • Serum specimen (must have paired sera)
    • Turn-around time: 10-14 days

Flavivirus Serology

Significant cross-reactions may be seen within the viruses of the Flavivirus group. If cross-reactivity is suspected, the sample will be forwarded to a reference laboratory for additional testing.

  • Dengue EIA
    • Detects IgM antibodies to DEN1-4
    • Serum Specimen
    • Turn-around time: 15 days
  • St. Louis Encephalitis EIA
    • Detects IgM antibodies
    • Serum or CSF specimen
    • Turn-around time: 6-7 days
  • West Nile Virus EIA
    • Detects IgM antibodies
    • Serum of CSF specimen
    • Turn-around time: 6-7 days

Hantavirus Serology

  • Hantavirus EIA
    • Detects both IgG and IgM antibodies. Demonstration of the presence of IgM antibody is suggestive of recent exposure to Hantavirus (Sin Nombre Virus).
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 5-7 days
  • Hantavirus IgG EIA
    • Detects IgG antibodies.
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 5-7 days
  • Hantavirus IgM EIA
    • Detects IgM antibodies. Demonstration of the presence of IgM antibody is suggestive of recent exposure to Hantavirus (Sin Nombre Virus).
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 5-7 days

HIV Serology

HIV testing is provided on a limited basis to the HIV program only, and requires prior approval from the Arizona Department of Health Services. Samples submitted for HIV testing are tested by the EIA and Multispot rapid test. Samples that test positive by EIA are retested in duplicate.

  • HIV Ag/Ab EIA
    • Detects antigen and antibody for Human Immunodeficiency Viruses: Detects HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 and/or HIV-2
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 7 days
  • HIV-1/HIV-2 Multispot
    • HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 7 days

Syphilis Serology

Syphilis testing is provided on a limited basis and requires prior approval from the Arizona Department of Health Services. Serum samples submitted are screened by the RPR, which is used for initial screening and for observing the patient's response to treatment. A non-reactive test can be interpreted as no current infection or an effectively treated infection. Samples that are reactive by RPR are subjected to the TP-PA confirmation test, which assists in diagnosing late syphilis.

  • RPR - Screen
    • Detects non-treponemal antibodies associated with syphilis infection.
    • Serum specimen (Do not take blood within 1 hour after eating to avoid chylous serum)
    • Turn-around time: 5 days
  • TP-PA – Confirmation
    • Detects treponemal antibodies associated with syphilis infection.
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 7 days

Hepatitis Serology

Hepatitis C immune status testing is provided on a limited basis and requires prior approval from the Arizona Department of Health Services.

  • Hepatitis C EIA - Screen
    • Detects Hepatitis C antibodies
    • Serum specimen
    • Turn-around time: 10-14 days